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Introduction to "있다" as "to have"

Introduction to "있다" as "to have"

있다 is a verb used to construct sentences expressing "possession" in Korean. Additionally,있다 can function as "to be/exist" in Korean, a topic we'll delve into later.

Let me introduce another verb to you: 없다, which stands in contrast to 있다.

In summary, we'll be exploring these two verbs:

VerbPronunciationStemMeaning
있다it-dato have
없다eop-danot to have

Syntax of "있다" and "없다"

Here, you can see all the possible syntaxes of 있다 and 없다 in the Present Simple Tense without specifying any subjects.

Because the present simple tense is sufficient for understanding the concept.

To incorporate subjects into Korean sentences, you'll need to grasp Subject Particles. We'll cover this aspect later, which is why it's not included here.

Declarative:

Syntax:

Noun +이 / 가
(i / ga)
있습니다. (iss-eum-ni-da)FormalPolite
있어요. (iss-eoyo)Informal

Examples:

(Subject) has a book.PronunciationFormalPolite
책이 있습니다.Chaek-i iss-eum-ni-da
책이 있어요.Chaek-i iss-eoyo
(Subject) has a chair.PronunciationFormalPolite
의자가 있습니다.Uija-ga iss-eum-ni-da
의자가 있어요.Uija-ga iss-eoyo

Interrogative:

Syntax:

Noun +이 / 가
(i / ga)
있습니까? (iss-seum-nikka)FormalPolite
있어요? (iss-eoyo)Informal

Examples:

Does (Subject) have a book?PronunciationFormalPolite
책이 있습니까?Chaek-i iss-seum-nikka
책이 있어요?Chaek-i iss-eoyo
Does (Subject) have a chair?PronunciationFormalPolite
의자가 있습니까?Uija-ga iss-seum-nikka
의자가 있어요?Uija-ga iss-eoyo

Negative:

Syntax:

Noun +이 / 가
(i / ga)
없습니다. (eop-seumnida)FormalPolite
없어요. (eop-seoyo)Informal

Examples:

(Subject) doesn't have a book.PronunciationFormalPolite
책이 없습니다.Chaek-i eop-seum-ni-da
책이 없어요.Chaek-i eop-seoyo
(Subject) doesn't have a chair.PronunciationFormalPolite
의자가 없습니다.Uija-ga eop-seum-ni-da
의자가 없어요.Uija-ga eop-seoyo

Negative Interrogative:

Syntax:

Noun +이 / 가
(i / ga)
없습니까? (eop-seumnikka)FormalPolite
없어요? (eop-seoyo)Informal

Examples:

Doesn't (Subject) have a book?PronunciationFormalPolite
책이 없습니까?Chaek-i eop-seum-nikka
책이 없어요?Chaek-i eop-seoyo
Doesn't (Subject) have a chair?PronunciationFormalPolite
의자가 없습니까?Uija-ga eop-seum-nikka
의자가 없어요?Uija-ga eop-seoyo

Note: 이/가 are subject markers in Korean, indicating the subject of a sentence. follows a consonant, and follows a vowel, helping clarify the subject.

Detailed explanations, pronunciations in audio and more examples will follow in the upcoming chapters.